Older Caregivers of HIV/AIDS Children in Namibia: The Association between Loneliness, Depression, and Life Satisfaction


  • Eveline Ndinelao Kalomo Wichita state University
  • Jung Jun Kansas State University
  • Kyoung Hag Lee Wichita State University




caregiving, older adults, loneliness, life satisfaction, Namibia, HIV/AIDS, Africa


Namibia has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in the world. Older relatives in Namibia are taking the lead role in caring for children living with HIV, or orphaned as their parents had HIV. There has been a growing attention to the well-being and mental health of these older adult caregivers in sub-Saharan Africa; however, there is a lack of information on the intertwined factors such as loneliness and depression to their life satisfaction. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the relationship between loneliness and depression on life satisfaction among older caregivers of children living with HIV or AIDS in rural Namibia. This cross-sectional study recruited 100 Oshiwambo speaking caregivers over age 60 in the Omusati region to complete a study instrument measuring their levels of loneliness, depression and perceived life satisfaction. Using hierarchical regression method, this study found that both loneliness and depression were significantly associated with lower levels of perceived life satisfaction among our sample. Medical care or insurance and awareness of social services were both associated with higher levels of perceived life satisfaction. Social service professionals and policy makers in Namibia should consider designing culturally appropriate interventions aimed at addressing these important mental health related concerns of older rural caregivers.


Authors: Eveline Ndinelao Kalomo (a)*, Jung Sim Jun (b), and Kyoung Hag Lee (a)

(a) Wichita State University, School of Social Work, 1845 Fairmount Street, Wichita, KS 67260, USA

(b) Kansas State University, Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work, 1603 Old Claflin Pl. Manhattan, KS 66506, USA

Corresponding Author:

Eveline Ndinelao Kalomo

Fairmount Street, Wichita, KS 67260-0154

Email: eveline.kalomo@wichita.edu

Telephone: (316) 978-7333

Fax: (316) 978-3328




How to Cite

Kalomo, E. N., Jun, J., & Lee, K. H. (2022). Older Caregivers of HIV/AIDS Children in Namibia: The Association between Loneliness, Depression, and Life Satisfaction. The Journal of Practice Teaching and Learning, 19(1-2). https://doi.org/10.1921/jpts.v19i1-2.1661