Developing a framework of practice forsocial Wworkers in HIV management in India


  • Sangeeta Sharma Dhaor Associate Professor, Dept of Social Work, Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar College, University of Delhi



HIV/AIDS prevention, multilevel framework, multistage framework, internalised stigma


The pandemic of HIV is far from over, as is widely believed. Management of the infection is achieved through the provision of Ante-Retroviral Therapy, resulting in the longevity of the infected. This therapy implies an increased number of people living with the infection. However, the socio-psycho-cultural factors and resultant behavior that contribute to the spread of the virus still prevail, causing new segments of infected people. Transdisciplinary practice competencies are vital components of social work practice with HIV-positive persons. Sending an untutored and naïve social worker for care and treatment of HIV infected may damage the infected person psychologically and physically. Evidence-based research establishes the need to develop theory and practice exposure to social work students. The evidence-based practice framework is required for social workers to equip themselves. Here is an effort to develop an evidence-based practice framework on the cascade of psycho-socio-cultural issues affecting life from HIV infection to ART adherence. This framework emerges from lessons from the field research considering the multi-level interventions for the infected.


Airhihenbuwa, C. O. and Obregon, R. (2000) ‘A critical assessment of theories/models used in health communication for hiv/aids’, Journal of Health Communication, 5, pp. 5–15. doi: 10.1080/10810730050019528.

Attia, S. et al. (2009) ‘Sexual transmission of HIV according to viral load and antiretroviral therapy: systematic review and meta-analysis’, AIDS, 23(11). doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832b7dca.

Baral, S. et al. (2019) ‘The disconnect between individual-level and population-level HIV prevention benefits of antiretroviral treatment’, The Lancet HIV, 6(9). doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(19)30226-7.

Baldwin. J. 1, Whitelc. S & Baldwin. J. D. (1 990). Changing AIDS and fertility-related behavior. The effcaciveness of sexual education. Jouml of Sex Research. 27.245-262.)…

Berkman, S.L. Sheridan, K.E. Donahue, D.J. Halpern, K. Crotty, Low health literacy and health outcomes: an updated systematic review, Ann. Intern. Med. 155 (2011) 97–107. [2])

Bhattacharya, G. (2004) Health Care Seeking for HIV/AIDS among South Asians in the United States, Health & Social Work. Available at:

Bouis, S. et al. (2007) An Integrated, Multidimensional Treatment Model for Individuals Living with HIV, Mental Illness, and Substance Abuse, Health & Social Work. Available at:

Catania, J. A., Kegeles, S. M. and Coates, T. J. (1990) ‘Towards an Understanding of Risk Behavior: An AIDS Risk Reduction Model (ARRM)’, Health Education & Behavior, 17(1), pp. 53–72. doi: 10.1177/109019819001700107.

Chu, C. and Selwyn, P. A. (2011) ‘An epidemic in evolution: The need for new models of HIV care in the chronic disease Era’, Journal of Urban Health, 88(3), pp. 556–566. doi: 10.1007/s11524-011-9552-y.

Dehne, Karl L. et al. (2016) ‘HIV Prevention 2020: a framework for delivery and a call for action’, The Lancet HIV. Elsevier Ltd, pp. e323–e332. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(16)30035-2.

Dehne, Karl L et al. (2016) ‘HIV Prevention 2020: a framework for delivery and a call for action’, The Lancet HIV, 3(7). doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(16)30035-2.

DiMatteo MR2004 Variations in Patients’ Adherence to Medical Recommendations A Quantitative Review of 50 Years of Research p.p.207 Medical Care • Volume 42, Number 3, March 2004).

doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832b7dca)

Fisher, J. D. (no date) OpenCommons@UConn Changing AIDS-Risk Behavior. Available at:

Golden, S. D. and Earp, J. A. L. (2012) ‘Social Ecological Approaches to Individuals and Their Contexts: Twenty Years of Health Education & Behavior Health Promotion Interventions’, Health Education and Behavior, 39(3), pp. 364–372. doi: 10.1177/1090198111418634.

Gorey, K. M., Thyer, B. A. and Pawluck, D. E. (1998) Gorey, Thyer, and Pawluck / Differential Effectiveness of Prevalent Social Work Practice Models: A Meta-Analysis Differential Effectiveness of Prevalent Social Work Practice Models: A Meta-Analysis. Available at:

Herbst JH, Sherba RT, Crepaz N, Deluca JB, Zohrabyan L, Stall RD, Lyles CM: A meta-analytic review of HIV behavioral interventions for reducing sexual risk behavior of men who have sex with men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005, 39(2):228–241

Hermann, K., Van Damme, W., Pariyo, G.W. et al. Community health workers for ART in sub-Saharan Africa: learning from experience – capitalizing on new opportunities. Hum Resour Health 7, 31 (2009) doi:10.1186/1478-4491-7-

ICMR.. Ethical Guidelines for biomedical research in human participants.2006. Retrieved from p.p.21

Kaufman, M. R. et al. (2014) ‘Health Behavior Change Models for HIV Prevention and AIDS Care’, JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 66(Supplement 3). doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000236.

Kalichman, S. C. et al. (2002) Sensation Seeking and Alcohol Use as Markers of Sexual Transmission Risk Behavior in HIV-Positive Men. Available at:

Kingori, C. et al. (2012) ‘Impact of Internalized Stigma on HIV Prevention Behaviors Among HIV-Infected Individuals Seeking HIV Care in Kenya’, AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 26(12). doi: 10.1089/apc.2012.0258.

Larios, S. E. et al. (2009) ‘An exploration of contextual factors that influence HIV risk in female sex workers in Mexico: The Social Ecological Model applied to HIV risk behaviors’, AIDS Care, 21(10). doi: 10.1080/09540120902803190.

Lieber, E. et al. (2006) ‘HIV/STD Stigmatization Fears as Health-Seeking Barriers in China’, AIDS and Behavior, 10(5). doi: 10.1007/s10461-005-9047-5.

Mcleroy, K. R. et al. (1988) ‘An Ecological Perspective on Health Promotion Programs’, Health Education & Behavior, 15(4), pp. 351–377. doi: 10.1177/109019818801500401.

Munro, S. et al. (2007) ‘A review of health behaviour theories: How useful are these for developing interventions to promote long-term medication adherence for TB and HIV/AIDS?’, BMC Public Health. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-104.

Ngo, A. D. et al. (2007) ‘Health-seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted infections and HIV testing among female sex workers in Vietnam’, AIDS Care, 19(7). doi: 10.1080/09540120601163078.

Overstreet, N. M. et al. (2013) ‘Internalized stigma and HIV status disclosure among HIV-positive black men who have sex with men’, AIDS Care, 25(4). doi: 10.1080/09540121.2012.720362.

Poteat, T. et al. (2011) ‘HIV risk among MSM in Senegal: A qualitative rapid assessment of the impact of enforcing laws that criminalize same sex practices’, PLoS ONE, 6(12). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028760.

Poteat, T., German, D. and Kerrigan, D. (2013) ‘Managing uncertainty: A grounded theory of stigma in transgender health care encounters’, Social Science & Medicine, 84. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.02.019.

Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W. F. and Velic~, W. F. (1997) The Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior Change, J Health Promot.

Rotheram-Borus, M. J., Swendeman, D., Flannery, D., Rice, E., Adamson, D. M., & Ingram, B. (2009). Common factors in effective HIV prevention programs. AIDS and behavior, 13(3), 399–408.

World Medical Association WMA 2018 Helsinki declaration. 2018. Retrieved from

Wolf, M.S., Mitchell, C.G. Preparing Social Workers to Address HIV/AIDS Prevention and Detection: Implications for Professional Training and Education. Journal of Community Health 27, 165–180 (2002)., accessed on 9 June 2021.

(national institute of medical research NIMS, Ministry of health and family welfare , government of India national AIDS Control organisation NACO,



How to Cite

Dhaor, S. S. (2022). Developing a framework of practice forsocial Wworkers in HIV management in India . The Journal of Practice Teaching and Learning, 19(1-2), 124-165.