The needs of HIV-positive teenage mothers within a South African socio-cultural context

Authors

  • Ilze Slabbert Lecturer, Department of Social Work, Stellenbosch University
  • Tasneemah Cornelissen-Nordien Lecturer, Department of Social Work, Stellenbosch University
  • Nomdundo Singwayo Social Worker, Department of Social Development, Limpopo

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1921/jpts.v19i1-2.1682

Keywords:

HIV positive teenage mothers, social service providers, basic needs, South Africa, poverty

Abstract

In rural South Africa a significant number of teenage mothers are HIV
positive with several needs. There are several programmes implemented with the
aim to prevent teenage pregnancies, but, effective services, are lacking especially
in rural areas for adolescents who already gave birth to their babies. The goal of
this study was to explore and describe the experiences of social service providers
in supporting the basic needs of HIV positive teenage mothers in a rural area
in South Africa. The study was qualitative in nature. The findings indicate that
HIV positive teenage mothers have several needs and lack basic services such
a sufficient health care, healthy food and potable water, opportunity complete
their schooling, and support. Socio-cultural factors such as early marriage, lack
of parental guidance, and gender power imbalances also contribute to teenage
pregnancies and positive HIV status. Based on the findings relevant conclusions
and recommendations were made.

References

Adeagbo, M.J. (2019) ‘Motherhood Is Hard’: Exploring the Complexities of Unplanned Motherhood Among HIV-Positive Adolescents in South Africa. Reproductive Health in Sub-Saharan Africa. Sage Open Publications, DOI: 10.1177/2158244019848802

Adeagbo, M.J. and Naidoo, K. (2020) Exploring narratives and advocating support and peer mentorship to improve HIV-positive adolescent mothers’ lives in South Africa. African Journal of AIDS Research, 19, 3, 231-241

Adedeji, I.A., Ayegboyin, M. and Salami, K.K. (2014) Unmet social needs and teenage pregnancy in Ogbomosho, South-Western Nigeria. African Health Sciences, 14, 4, 959-966

AVERT (2015) HIV-positive mothers thrive on peer support. [Accessed 30 June 2021 at https://www.avert.org/news/hiv-positive-mothers-thrive-peer-support]

AVERT (2020) Global information and education on HIV and AIDS. [Accessed 20 June 2021 at https://www.avert.org/aids-2020]

Bhana D., Morrell R. & Shefer, T. (2012) Pregnancy and parenthood in South African schools. Pregnancy and young parents in school. Cape Town: HSRC Press

Boonstra, H.D. (2007) Young People Need Help in Preventing Pregnancy and HIV; How Will the World Respond. Guttmacher Policy Review, 10, 3, 1-8

Bower, C. (2014) The Plight of Women and Children: Advancing South Africa’s Least Privileged. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 652, 106-126 [Accessed: 30 June 2021 at http://www.jstor.org/stable/24541719.]

Branson, N. Ardington, M. and Leibbrandt, C. (2015) Health Outcomes for Children Born to Teen Mothers in Cape Town, South Africa. Economic Development and Culture Change, 63, 3, 589-616

Bremmer, G. and Slatter, A. (2017) An Introduction to Developmental Psychology. Blackwell: Wiley

Breinder, H. Ford, M. and Gadsden, V.L. (2016) Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. In Parenting Matters. Consensus Study Report. Washington: National Academics Press

Brinkerhoff, D.W., Wetterberg, A. and Wibbels, E. (2018) Distance, services and citizen perceptions of the state in rural Africa. Governance, 31, 103-124

Burger S., Gouws, F.E. and Kruger, N. (2008) The Adolescent. Johannesburg: Heinemann

Cane, T.C.P. (2018) Facilitating and supporting HIV+ parenthood: Lessons for developing the advocate role of voluntary HIV support services workers. Sexual & Reproductive Health Care, 16, 186-191

Cassell, C. (2002) Let It Shine: Promoting School Success. Life Aspirations to Prevent School-Age Parenthood, 30, 3. Washington, DC: SIECUS

Chetty, R. and Chigona, A. (2008) Girls’ Education in South Africa: Special Consideration to Teen Mothers as Learners. Journal of Education for International Development, 3, 1, 1-17

Clark, H., Soriano, G. and Wise, S. (2008) Promising Practice Profiles: Final report. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies

Cluver L. (2020) Baseline Report of the Hey Baby Study. Universities of Cape Town and Oxford and University College London

Cornelissen-Nordien, T. (2019) Empowerment services for sexually abused children offered by non-profit organisations in the Western Cape. PhD thesis. Cape Town: Stellenbosch University

Davids, A., Ncitakal, N., Penzi, S. & Zungu, N. (2012) Sexual Abuse. In: Van Niekerk, A., Suffla, S. & SeedaT, M. (eds.). Third Review: Crime and Injury Prevention in South Africa: 21st Century Solutions for Child Safety. [Accessed: 12 October 2021 at http://www.mrc.ac.za/crime/review.htm.]

De la Rey, C., Duncan, N., O’Neill, V., Swartz, L. & Townsend, L. (2011) Psychology: An introduction (3rd ed.). Cape Town: Oxford University Press

Education Training Unit (2013). How to deliver care for people with HIV/AIDS and their families-guide lines. [Accessed: 20 June 2021 at http://www.etu.org.za/toolbox/docs/aids/family-care.html.]

Edwards, R. C., Hans, S. L., Henson, L., Isarowong, N., Shiu, C. S. & Thullen, M. J. (2012) Supportive relationships and the trajectory of depressive symptoms among young, African American mothers. Journal of Family Psychology, 26, 4, 585-594

Ehlers, V.J. & Ziyane, I.S. (2006) Swazi youths’ attitudes and perceptions concerning adolescent pregnancies and contraception. Health SA Gesondheid, 11, 1, 31 – 42

Erikson, E.H. (1959) The problem of ego identity. Psychological Issues, 1, 101-164

Hall, K. (2019) Teenage Pregnancy. Children Count. Statistics on Children in South Africa. [Accessed: 30 June 2021 at http://childrencount.uct.ac.za/indicator.php?domain=5&indicator=27]

Fouché, C.B. (2021) Introduction to the research process. In Fouché, C.B., Strydom, H. & Roestenburg, W.J.H. Research at Grassroots. Pretoria: Van Schaik

Hepworth, D., Rooney, R., Rooney, G. & Kimberly Strom-Gottfried. (2017) Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills. California: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.

Huggies. 2020. [Accessed: 22 November 2021 at https://www.huggies.co.za/articles/pregnancy/parenting/cost-of-raising-a-child].

Gogai, A., Sherman, G., Chirindai, W., Ng’oma, K., Bhardwaj, S., Doherty, T., Pillay,Y., Barron, P. 2017. Eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV in South Africa, 2002–2016: progress, challenges and the Last Mile Plan. [Accessed: 22 November 2021 at https://www.hst.org.za/publications/South%20African%20Health%20Reviews/13_Eliminating%20mother%20to%20child%20transmission%20of%20HIV%20in%20South%20Africa_2002%20to%202016_progress_challanges%20and%20the%20Last%20Mile%20Plan.pdf]

Jewkes, R., Morrell, R & Christofides, N. (2009) Empowering teenagers to prevent pregnancy: Lessons from South Africa. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 11, 675-688

Kochrekar, M. (2017) How Does Peer Pressure Influence Teen Pregnancy? [Accessed: 29 June 2021 at http://www.momjunction.com/articles/how-does-peer-pressure-influence-teen-pregnancy_00376249/].

Kristin A.M. & Kristine M.A., (2011) Second chance homes: a resource for teen mothers. Washington, DC: 20008, Healthy Teen Network, Child Trends

Letsoalo, T., Makiwane, M., Panday, S. & Ranchod, C. (2009) Teenage pregnancy in South Africa- with a specific focus on school-going learners. Child, Youth, Family and Social Development, Human Sciences Research Council. Pretoria: Department of Basic Education.

Lambani, M.N. (2015) Poverty the Cause of Teenage Pregnancy in Thulamela Municipality. Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology. 6, 2, 171-176

Lawlor, D.A., Najman J.M. & Shaw, M. (2006) Teenage children of teenage mothers: Psychological, behavioural and health outcomes from and Australian prospective longitudinal study. Social Science and Medicine, 62, 2526-2539

Majuru, B., Jagals, P. and Hunter, P. (2012) Assessing rural small community water supply in Limpopo, South Africa: Water service benchmarks and reliability. PubMed. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.07.024

Martin, R.C. (2003) Understanding sexuality. Chicago: World Book, Inc. A Scott Fetzer Company

Maslow, A. H. (1943) A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 4, 370-96

Maslow, A. H. (1954) Motivation and personality. New York: Harper and Row

McCloskey, L.A., Boonzaier, F., Steinbrenner, S.Y. and Hunter, T. (2016) Determinants of intimate partner violence in Sub-Saharan Africa: a review of prevention and intervention programs. Partner Abuse, 7, 3, 277-315

Mofokeng, S. (2015) Health service providers on the need for support services for HIV-positive mothers in the rural areas of Lesotho: An ecological perspective. Master’s thesis. Cape Town: Stellenbosch University

Mogotlane, S., Van Niekerk, C.F. and Young, A. (2007) Manual of nursing. Cape Town: Juta

Monareng, L.V., Mushwana, L, Richter, S., and Muller, H. (2015) Factors influencing the adolescent pregnancy rate in the Greater Giyani Municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa. International Journal of African Nursing Sciences, 2, 10-18

Newman, M.B and Newman P.R. (2006) Development Through life: A psychosocial approach (9th edition). United States of America: Thomson Wadsworth

Nkosi, N.N & Pretorius, E. (2019) The influence of teenage pregnancy on education: perceptions of educators at a secondary school in Tembisa, Gauteng. Social Work/ Maatskaplike Werk, 55, 1, 9

Panahi, S. (2015) Role of Parents, Teachers, and Community in Adolescents` Issues. Hiran. Hamedan University of Medical Sciences. [Accessed: 23 June 2021 at ttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/308892358]

Patel, L. (2016) Social Welfare and Social Development in South Africa. Cape Town: Oxford

Poston, B. (2009) An exercise in personal exploration: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Everest College, Thornton: Association of Surgical Technologists

Republic of South Africa (RSA) (2018) Department of Education’s Draft National Policy on the Prevention and Management of Learner Pregnancy in Schools. [Accessed: 30 June 2021 at https://www.education.gov.za/Portals/0/Documents/Policies/Draft%20Pregnancy%20Policy%202018.pdf.]

Ramalepa, T.N., Ramukumba, T.S. and Masala-Chokwe, M.E. (2020) Views of learners on prevention and management of pregnancies in schools of Madibeng municipality, North- West province of South Africa. African Journal of Reproductive Health, 24, 4, 27-40

SASSA. 2021. [Accessed: 17 October 2021 at www.sassa.gov.za]

Segalo, L.J., (2020) The Learner pregnancy in secondary schools in South Africa: Has attitudes and perceptions of teachers changed? KOERS — Bulletin for Christian Scholarship, 85(1). [Accessed: 23 June 2021 at https:// doi.org/10.19108/KOERS.85.1.2461]

Skobi, F. and Makofane, M. (2017) Reflections of social workers on the experiences of pregnant teenagers during group work sessions. Social Work/ Maatskaplike Werk, 53 2, 224-249

Shurink, W.J., Shurink E.M. & Fouché, C.B. (2021) Thematic inquiry in qualitative research. In Fouché, C.B., Strydom, H. & Roestenburg, W.J.H. Research at Grassroots. Pretoria: Van Schaik

Stastista. (2021) Share of females aged 14-19 years who were pregnant in South Africa in 2018 and 2019, by age. [Accessed: 30 June 2021 at https://www.statista.com/statistics/1115755/share-of-teenage-pregnancies-in-south-africa-by-age/.]

Strydom, H. And Roestenburg. W.H.J. (2021) Ethical conduct in research with human participants. In Fouché, C.B., Strydom, H. & Roestenburg, W.J.H. Research at Grassroots. Pretoria: Van Schaik

Thobejane, T.D. (2015) Factors Contributing to Teenage Pregnancy in South Africa: The Case of Matjitjileng Village. Journal Sociology Sociology and Anthroplogy, 6, 2, 273-277

Toska, E., Laurenzi, C.A., Roberts, K.J., Cluver, L. & Sherr, L. (2020) Adolescent mothers affected by HIV and their children: A scoping review of evidence and experiences from Sub-Saharan Africa. Global Public Health, 15, 11,1655-1673

UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime). (2021) [Accessed: 12 November 2021 at https://www.unodc.org/southernafrica/en/vaw/index.html]

UNICEF. (2006) Girls Education movement. [Accessed: 11 July 2018 at https://www.unicef.org/southafrica/SAF_resources_gembrief.pdf]

UNICEF. (2020) Addressing the needs of adolescent and young mothers affected by HIV in Eastern and Southern Africa. [Accessed: 22 June 2021 at http://www.childrenandaids.org/sites/default/files/2020-10/UNICEF-ESA-Young-Mothers-HIV-Report-2020.pdf.]

Vale, B., Hodes, R. and Cluver, L. (2016) Negotiations of Blame and Care among HIV-positive Mothers and Daughters in South Africa’s Eastern Cape. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 31, 4, 519-536

Varga, C.A. (2003) How Gender Roles Influence Sexual and Reproductive Health among South African Adolescents. Studies in Family Planning, 34(3): 160-172

Vlok, P.A. (2016) How to properly deal with teen pregnancy. [Accessed: January 2019 at https://www.news24.com/You/Archive/how-to-properly-deal-with-teen-pregnancy-20170728]

Western Cape Government. (2020) South African Child Support Grant. [Accessed: 18 November 2021 at https://www.westerncape.gov.za/service/sassa-child-support-grant]

Yakabu, I. and Salisu, W.J. (2018) Determinants of adolescent pregnancy in Sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review. Reproductive Health, 15, 15,1-11

Downloads

Published

2022-05-17

How to Cite

Slabbert, I., Cornellissen-Nordien, T., & Singwayo, N. (2022). The needs of HIV-positive teenage mothers within a South African socio-cultural context. The Journal of Practice Teaching and Learning, 19(1-2). https://doi.org/10.1921/jpts.v19i1-2.1682