CHALLENGES OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS DURING COVID 19 PANDEMIC IN INDIA

IMPLICATION OF SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE

Authors

  • Binu Sahayam VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1921/jpts.v19i1-2.1705

Keywords:

HIV/AIDS, COVID-19 pandemic, depression, social work intervention

Abstract

HIV/AIDS is considered as one of the most demanding public health problems faced by the country. It is a public threat and needs collective efforts in addressing the issue. In this line, a study was conducted among 30 people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in Chennai, Tamilnadu, India to study the challenges faced by women living with HIV/AIDS during the lockdown COVID 19 Pandemic in India. The data was collected with the support of the International Alliance for the Prevention of AIDS (IAPA) India, Chennai. In this study, descriptive research design and Simple random (lottery method) sampling technique was adopted. The researcher designed a questionnaire comprising both structured and semi structured questions along with “Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) – 21 item” standardized scale to obtain the data. The study shows that 76.7 percent of the respondents felt depressed because they do not have income to support their family needs and 53.3% shared that they are living in fear of HIV/AIDS and now during lockdown fear of survival is another painful one. Social work revolves around service, but is inherently interdisciplinary in nature. In this study Seven-Stage Crisis Intervention Model by Albert R. Roberts and Allen J. Ottens, was used for intervention. It was found after intervention that the p value of Depression, Anxiety and Stress is 0.00, which is less than the significance level of 0.05, hence the null hypothesis is rejected. Thus the results after the intervention showed that there was a visible decrease in their depression, stress and anxiety level.

 

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, COVID 19 Pandemic, Depression, Social Work Interventions

References

Basha, E. A, Derseh, B. T, Haile, Y, and Tafere, G. (2019) Factors Affecting Psychological Distress among People Living with HIV/AIDS at Selected Hospitals of North Shewa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. AIDS research and treatment, 2019, 8329483. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8329483

Bell, K, Fahmy, E, and Gordon, D. (2016) Quantitative conversations: the importance of developing rapport in standardized interviewing. Quality and quantity, 50(1), 193–212. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-014-0144-2

Boutayeb, A. (2009) The impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries. BMC Public Health 9, S3. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-9-S1-S3

Bober, T, and Regehr, C. (2006) Strategies for reducing secondary or vicarious trauma: Do they work? Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 6(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1093/brief-treatment/mhj001

Chenneville, T, Gabbidon, K, Hanson, P, and Holyfield, C. (2020) The Impact of COVID-19on HIV Treatment and Research: A Call to Action. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(12), 4548. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124548

Chenneville, Tiffany et al. (2020) The Impact of COVID-19 on HIV Treatment and Research: A Call to Action. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17, 12 4548, doi:10.3390/ijerph17124548

Cucinotta, D, and Vanelli, M. (2020) WHO Declares COVID-19 a Pandemic. Acta bio-medica : Atenei Parmensis, 91,1, 157–160. https://doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i1.9397

Dejman, M, Ardakani, H. M, Malekafzali, B, Moradi, G, Gouya, M. M, Shushtari, Z. J, Alinaghi, S. A, and Mohraz, M. (2015) Psychological, Social, and Familial Problems of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Iran: A Qualitative Study. International journal of preventive medicine, 6, 126. https://doi.org/10.4103/2008-7802.172540

Escandón, K, Rasmussen, A. L, Bogoch, I. I, Murray, E. J, Escandón, K, Popescu, S. V, and Kindrachuk, J. (2021) COVID-19 false dichotomies and a comprehensive review of the evidence regarding public health, COVID-19 symptomatology, SARS-CoV-2 transmission, mask-wearing, and reinfection. BMC infectious diseases, 21, 1, 710, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06357-4

Gatechompol et al. (2021) COVID-19 and HIV infection co-pandemics and their impact: a review of the literature. AIDS Res Ther 18, 28, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12981-021-00335-1

Gluhoski, V. L. (1996). Cognitive therapy for clients newly diagnosed as HIV-positive. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 33,3, 441–448, https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.33.3.441

Guan, et al (2020) Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with COVID-19 in China: a nationwide analysis. The European Respiratory Journal, 55,5, 2000547, https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00547-2020

Human Development Perspectives. (2020) COVID-19 and Human Development: Assessing the Crisis, Envisioning the Recovery. United Nations Development Programme, USA. [Accessed 7 December 2021 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/COVID-19-19_and_human_development_0.pdf]

Khanam, Kashmira. (2016) Problems of Women in Modern India. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research in Science Society and Culture, 2(1). [Accessed 11 May 2021 at http://ijirssc.in/pdf/1464789740.pdf]

Kuman Tunçel, Ö, et al. (2020) COVID-19-related anxiety in people living with HIV: an online cross-sectional study. Turkish Journal Of Medical Sciences, 50, 8, 1792–1800. [Accessed 10 May 2021 at https://doi.org/10.3906/sag-2006-140]

Lohmann, Roger A, (2011) Stretching the Paradigm: Crisis as A Problem In Mental Health Research. Faculty and Staff Scholarship. 1862.

[Accessed 7 May 2021 at https://researchrepository.wvu.edu/faculty_publications/1862]

Lovibond, S.H. & Lovibond, P.F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. (2nd. Ed.) Sydney: Psychology Foundation. Available at : https://www.thoracic.org/members/assemblies/assemblies/srn/questionaires/dsss.php [Accessed 16 February 2022]

Lovibond, P.F. & Lovibond, S.H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 335-343

Messer. (2004) Breaking the Conspiracy of Silence: Christian Churches and the Global AIDS Crisis, Fortress Press, USA

Malik, A., & Dixit, S. (2017) Women Living with HIV/AIDS: Psychosocial Challenges in the Indian Context. Journal of Health Management, 19(3), 474–494. https://doi.org/10.1177/0972063416666347

Mahajan, A. P, et al (2008) Stigma in the HIV/AIDS epidemic: a review of the literature and recommendations for the way forward. AIDS (London, England), 22, 2, S67–S79. [Accessed 6 May 2021 at https://doi.org/10.1097/01.aids.0000327438.13291.62]

Maulsby, C. H., Ratnayake, A., Hesson, D., Mugavero, M. J., & Latkin, C. A. (2020) A Scoping Review of Employment and HIV. AIDS and behavior, 24(10), 2942–2955. [Accessed 13 January 2022 at https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-02845-x]

Marbaniang, I, et al. (2020). The burden of anxiety among HIV-positive peopleduring the COVID-19 pandemic in Pune, India. BMC Public Health 20, 1598. [Accessed 6 June 2021 at https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09656-8.]

Mishral, D. R, and Rasundram, J. (2017) Triangulation an Essential Tool to Enhance The Validity Of A Case Study. Scholarly Research Journal for interdisciplinary studies. 4,31:69-74

Ministry of health and family welfare, Government of India. (2021) COVID-19 INDIA. India, National Informatics Centre (NIC), [Accessed 20 December 2021 at <https://www.mohfw.gov.in/index.html. 2021]

Mirzaei, Hossein et al. 2021 COVID-19 Among People Living with HIV: A Systematic Review. AIDS and behaviour,25,1,85-92. doi:10.1007/s10461-020-02983-2

Mothi1 N, Lala and Tappuni. (2016) HIV/AIDS in women and children in India. Oral Diseases, 2, 1, 19–24. [Accessed 20 December 2021 at https://doi.org/10.1111/odi.12450]

The Ministy of health and Family welfare, Governemnt of India. 2017. National AIDS Control Organization (NACO). Available at : https://main.mohfw.gov.in/sites/default/files/24%20Chapter%20496AN2018-19.pdf [Accessed 16 February 2022]

Nishiga, M., Wang, D.W., Han, Y., et al. (2020) COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease: from basic mechanisms to clinical perspectives. Nat Rev Cardiol 17, 543–558. [Accessed 15 December 2021 at https://doi.org/10.1038/s41569-020-0413-9]

Nyamathi, A. M., Sinha, S., Ganguly, K. K., William, R. R., Heravian, A., Ramakrishnan, P., Greengold, B., Ekstrand, M., and Rao, P. V. (2011) Challenges experienced by rural women in India living with AIDS and implications for the delivery of HIV/AIDS care. Health care for women international, 32(4), 300–313. [Accessed 13 December 2021 at https://doi.org/10.1080/07399332.2010.536282]

Oskouie, F., Kashefi, F., Rafii, F., & Gouya, M. M. (2017). Qualitative study of HIV related stigma and discrimination: What women say in Iran. Electronic physician, 9(7), 4718–4724. https://doi.org/10.19082/4718

Paudel, V, and Baral, K. P. (2015) Women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA), battling stigma, discrimination and denial and the role of support groups as a coping strategy: a review of the literature. Reproductive health, 12, 53. [Accessed 13 December 2021 at https://doi.org/10.1186/s12978-015-0032-9]

Parisi, C.E., Varma, D.S., Wang, Y. et al. Changes in Mental Health Among People with HIV During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Qualitative and Quantitative Perspectives. AIDS Behav (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-021-03547-8

Pellowski J. A. (2013) Barriers to care for rural people living with HIV: a review of domestic research and health care models. The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care : JANAC, 24,5, 422–437. [Accessed 13 December 2021 at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jana.2012.08.007]

Raguram, R., Weiss, M. G., Channabasavanna, S. M., and Devins, G. M. (1996) Stigma, depression, and somatization in South India. The American journal of psychiatry, 153(8), 1043–1049. [Accessed 21 November 2021 at https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.153.8.1043

Richardson, S., et al. (2020) Presenting Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Outcomes Among 5700 Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 in the New York City Area. JAMA, 323(20), 2052–2059. [Accessed 10 December 2021 at https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.6775]

Roberts, Albert R. and Allen J. Ottens. (2005) The Seven-Stage Crisis Intervention Model: A Road Map to Goal Attainment, Problem Solving, and Crisis Resolution. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention 5,329-339

Rodriguez, Elsa, and McDowell, O’Shonda. (2014) Social Workers’ Perception on HIV/AIDS and the Effects on Their Service Delivery. Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations. 65. [Accessed 11 November 2021 at https://scholarworks.lib.csusb.edu/etd/65]

Sahayam D. Binu and Rathnasabapathy, Maya. (2015) Women and HIV/AIDS: Case Study Method, Aarhat Multidisciplinary International Education Research Journal(online). [Accessed 21 May 2021 at http://www.aarhat.com/amierj/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/feb_mar_2015_02.pdf]

Sahayam D. Binu. (2019) The Role of Religion in the Prevention of HIV/AIDS (A study of the relationship between religion and prevention of diseases in select cities of Tamil Nadu, India). Institute of Dialogue with Cultures and Religions (IDCR), Chennai

Strug L.D, Grube A.B, Beckerman L.N. (2002) Challenges and Changing Roles in HIV/AIDS Social Work: Implications for Training and Education. Social Work in Health Care 35(4):1-19, DOI: 10.1300/J010v35n04_01

Tarakeshwar N, Srikrishnan AK, Johnson S, Vasu C, Solomon S, Merson M, et al. (2007) A social cognitive model of health for HIV-positive adults receiving care in India. AIDS and Behavior,11, 491–504.

UNDP (online) in Humanity needs leadership and solidarity to defeat the coronavirus. (2021). Available at URL :< https://www.undp.org/coronavirus>, [Accessed on 13 July 2021]

Thibaut F and van Wijngaarden-Cremers PJM (2020) Women’s Mental Health in the Time of COVID-19 Pandemic. Front. Glob. Womens Health 1:588372. doi: 10.3389/fgwh.2020.588372

UN Women. COVID-19 and its economic toll on women: The story behind the numbers, 16 September 2020. [Accessed on 21 December 2021 at: https://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2020/9/feature-COVID-19-economic-impacts-on-women]

World AIDS Day-India must gear up to end HIV/AIDS by 2030: experts. (2020).[Accessed on 2 December 2021 at URL: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/health/world-aids-day-india-must-gear-up-to-end-hivaids-by-2030-experts/article33214273.ece]

Published

2022-07-24

How to Cite

Sahayam, B. (2022). CHALLENGES OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS DURING COVID 19 PANDEMIC IN INDIA: IMPLICATION OF SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE. The Journal of Practice Teaching and Learning, 19(1-2), 198-224. https://doi.org/10.1921/jpts.v19i1-2.1705